For example, when working on a brick-and-mortar design and construction, projects will typically progress through stages like pre-planning, conceptual design, schematic design, design development, construction drawings or contract documents , and construction administration. While the phased approach works well for small, well-defined projects, it often results in challenge or failure on larger projects, or those that are more complex or have more ambiguities, issues and risk.
Unlike SEI's CMM, the OPM3 maturity model describes how to make project management processes capable of performing successfully, consistently, and predictably to enact the strategies of an organization. Project production management is the application of operations management to the delivery of capital projects.
Product-based planning is a structured approach to project management, based on identifying all of the products project deliverables that contribute to achieving the project objectives. As such, it defines a successful project as output-oriented rather than activity- or task-oriented. Traditionally depending on what project management methodology is being used , project management includes a number of elements: four to five project management process groups, and a control system.
Regardless of the methodology or terminology used, the same basic project management processes or stages of development will be used. Major process groups generally include: . In project environments with a significant exploratory element e. An example is the Phase—gate model.
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The initiating processes determine the nature and scope of the project. The key project controls needed here are an understanding of the business environment and making sure that all necessary controls are incorporated into the project. Any deficiencies should be reported and a recommendation should be made to fix them. The initiating stage should include a plan that encompasses the following areas. These areas can be recorded in a series of documents called Project Initiation documents.
Project Initiation documents are a series of planned documents used to create order for the duration of the project. These tend to include:.
After the initiation stage, the project is planned to an appropriate level of detail see example of a flow-chart. As with the Initiation process group, a failure to adequately plan greatly reduces the project's chances of successfully accomplishing its goals. Project planning generally consists of . Additional processes, such as planning for communications and for scope management, identifying roles and responsibilities, determining what to purchase for the project and holding a kick-off meeting are also generally advisable.
For new product development projects, conceptual design of the operation of the final product may be performed concurrent with the project planning activities, and may help to inform the planning team when identifying deliverables and planning activities. While executing we must know what are the planned terms that need to be executed.
This phase involves proper allocation, co-ordination and management of human resources and any other resources such as material and budgets. The output of this phase is the project deliverables. Documenting everything within a project is key to being successful. To maintain budget, scope, effectiveness and pace a project must have physical documents pertaining to each specific task. With correct documentation, it is easy to see whether or not a project's requirement has been met.
To go along with that, documentation provides information regarding what has already been completed for that project. Documentation throughout a project provides a paper trail for anyone who needs to go back and reference the work in the past. In most cases, documentation is the most successful way to monitor and control the specific phases of a project. With the correct documentation, a project's success can be tracked and observed as the project goes on. If performed correctly documentation can be the backbone to a project's success.
Monitoring and controlling consists of those processes performed to observe project execution so that potential problems can be identified in a timely manner and corrective action can be taken, when necessary, to control the execution of the project. The key benefit is that project performance is observed and measured regularly to identify variances from the project management plan.
Monitoring and controlling includes: . In multi-phase projects, the monitoring and control process also provides feedback between project phases, to implement corrective or preventive actions to bring the project into compliance with the project management plan. Project maintenance is an ongoing process, and it includes: .
In this stage, auditors should pay attention to how effectively and quickly user problems are resolved.
Over the course of any construction project, the work scope may change. Change is a normal and expected part of the construction process. Changes can be the result of necessary design modifications, differing site conditions, material availability, contractor-requested changes, value engineering and impacts from third parties, to name a few. Beyond executing the change in the field, the change normally needs to be documented to show what was actually constructed.
This is referred to as change management.
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Hence, the owner usually requires a final record to show all changes or, more specifically, any change that modifies the tangible portions of the finished work. The record is made on the contract documents — usually, but not necessarily limited to, the design drawings. The end product of this effort is what the industry terms as-built drawings, or more simply, "as built.
Construction document management is a highly important task undertaken with the aid of an online or desktop software system, or maintained through physical documentation. The increasing legality pertaining to the construction industry's maintenance of correct documentation has caused the increase in the need for document management systems. When changes are introduced to the project, the viability of the project has to be re-assessed.
It is important not to lose sight of the initial goals and targets of the projects.
Managing Complex, High Risk Projects: A Guide to Basic and Advanced Project Management
When the changes accumulate, the forecasted result may not justify the original proposed investment in the project. Successful project management identifies these components, and tracks and monitors progress so as to stay within time and budget frames already outlined at the commencement of the project. Closing includes the formal acceptance of the project and the ending thereof.
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Administrative activities include the archiving of the files and documenting lessons learned. This phase consists of: .
Also included in this phase is the Post Implementation Review. This is a vital phase of the project for the project team to learn from experiences and apply to future projects. Normally a Post Implementation Review consists of looking at things that went well and analyzing things that went badly on the project to come up with lessons learned. Project controlling also known as Cost Engineering should be established as an independent function in project management.
It implements verification and controlling function during the processing of a project to reinforce the defined performance and formal goals. Fulfillment and implementation of these tasks can be achieved by applying specific methods and instruments of project controlling. The following methods of project controlling can be applied:. Project control is that element of a project that keeps it on track, on-time and within budget. Projects may be audited or reviewed while the project is in progress. Formal audits are generally risk or compliance-based and management will direct the objectives of the audit.
An examination may include a comparison of approved project management processes with how the project is actually being managed. If project control is not implemented correctly, the cost to the business should be clarified in terms of errors and fixes. Control systems are needed for cost, risk , quality, communication, time, change, procurement, and human resources.
In addition, auditors should consider how important the projects are to the financial statements , how reliant the stakeholders are on controls, and how many controls exist. Auditors should review the development process and procedures for how they are implemented. The process of development and the quality of the final product may also be assessed if needed or requested. A business may want the auditing firm to be involved throughout the process to catch problems earlier on so that they can be fixed more easily. An auditor can serve as a controls consultant as part of the development team or as an independent auditor as part of an audit.
Businesses sometimes use formal systems development processes. These help assure systems are developed successfully. A formal process is more effective in creating strong controls, and auditors should review this process to confirm that it is well designed and is followed in practice. A good formal systems development plan outlines:. There are five important characteristics of a project.
Complexity and its nature plays an important role in the area of project management. Despite having number of debates on this subject matter, studies suggest lack of definition and reasonable understanding of complexity in relation to management of complex projects. By applying the discovery in measuring work complexity described in Requisite Organization and Stratified Systems Theory, Dr Elliott Jaques classifies projects and project work stages, tasks into basic 7 levels of project complexity based on such criteria as time-span of discretion and complexity of a project's output:  .
Benefits from measuring Project Complexity is to improve project people feasibility by: . A project manager is a professional in the field of project management. Project managers are in charge of the people in a project. People are the key to any successful project.
Without the correct people in the right place and at the right time a project cannot be successful. Project managers can have the responsibility of the planning, execution, controlling, and closing of any project typically relating to the construction industry , engineering, architecture, computing , and telecommunications. Many other fields of production engineering, design engineering, and heavy industrial have project managers.
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A project manager needs to understand the order of execution of a project to schedule the project correctly as well as the time necessary to accomplish each individual task within the project. A project manager is the person accountable for accomplishing the stated project objectives. A project manager is required to know the project in and out while supervising the workers along with the project. Typically in most construction, engineering, architecture and industrial projects, a project manager has another manager working alongside of them who is typically responsible for the execution of task on a daily basis.
This position in some cases is known as a superintendent. A superintendent and project manager work hand in hand in completing daily project task.