Auditing of manufacturing and unit operations and processes are particularly significant and useful in the chemical process industries food, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, fertilizer, petrochemicals, etc. This book presents a compilation of complete information on potential sources of waste loss or generation through technical inspection. Also presented are calculation methods for determining air-waste-solid wastes material balances, informational requirements and waste reduction analysis.
The reader should find the book useful in the areas of auditing and waste minimization. It is replete with useful information as well as specific case histories, which should make it a practical tool for the user.
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Chemical Waste Management Guide | Environmental Health & Safety
Authors: Paul N. Hardcover ISBN: Imprint: William Andrew. Published Date: 31st December Page Count: Sorry, this product is currently out of stock. Flexible - Read on multiple operating systems and devices. Easily read eBooks on smart phones, computers, or any eBook readers, including Kindle. In industry, using more efficient manufacturing processes and better materials generally reduces the production of waste. The application of waste minimisation techniques has led to the development of innovative and commercially successful replacement products.
- Reading Harry Potter: Critical Essays (Contributions to the Study of Popular Culture,).
- Waste Reduction Algorithm: Chemical Process Simulation for Waste Reduction.
- The Drunken Cookbook;
- Daily Fruits.
Waste minimisation efforts often require investment, which is usually compensated by the savings. However, waste reduction in one part of the production process may create waste production in another part. Waste minimisation and resource maximisation for manufactured products can most easily be done at the design stage. Reducing the number of components used in a product or making the product easier to take apart can make it easier to be repaired or recycled at the end of its useful life.
In some cases, it may be best not to minimise the volume of raw materials used to make a product, but instead reduce the volume or toxicity of the waste created at the end of a product's life, or the environmental impact of the product's use. See section Durability. In this strategy, products and packages are optimally designed to meet their intended use. This applies especially to packaging materials , which should only be as durable as necessary to serve their intended purpose.
On the other hand, it could be more wasteful if food, which has consumed resources and energy in its production, is damaged and spoiled because of extreme measures to reduce the use of paper , metals , glass and plastics in its packaging. Improving product durability , such as extending a vacuum cleaner 's useful life to 15 years instead of 12, can reduce waste and usually much improves resource optimisation. But in some cases it has a negative environmental impact.
If a product is too durable, its replacement with more efficient technology is likely to be delayed. Therefore, extending an older machine's useful life may place a heavier burden on the environment than scrapping it, recycling its metal and buying a new model. Similarly, older vehicles consume more fuel and produce more emissions than their modern counterparts. Most proponents of waste minimisation consider that the way forward may be to view any manufactured product at the end of its useful life as a resource for recycling and reuse rather than waste.
Making refillable glass bottles strong enough to withstand several journeys between the consumer and the bottling plant requires making them thicker and so heavier, which increases the resources required to transport them. Since transport has a large environmental impact, careful evaluation is required of the number of return journeys bottles make.
If a refillable bottle is thrown away after being refilled only several times, the resources wasted may be greater than if the bottle had been designed for a single journey.. Many choices involve trade-offs of environmental impact, and often there is insufficient information to make informed decisions. Various aspects of business practices affect waste, such as the use of disposable tableware in restaurants.
Reusable bags are a visible form of re-use, and some stores offer a "bag credit" for re-usable shopping bags, although at least one chain reversed its policy, claiming "it was just a temporary bonus". While there is a minor inconvenience involved, this may remedy itself, as reusable bags are generally more convenient for carrying groceries. This section details some waste minimisation techniques for householders.
Appropriate amounts and sizes can be chosen when purchasing goods; buying large containers of paint for a small decorating job or buying larger amounts of food than can be consumed create unnecessary waste. Also, if a pack or can is to be thrown away, any remaining contents must be removed before the container can be recycled. Home composting , the practice of turning kitchen and garden waste into compost can be considered waste minimisation. The resources that households use can be reduced considerably by using electricity thoughtfully e.
Individuals can reduce the amount of waste they create by buying fewer products and by buying products which last longer. Mending broken or worn items of clothing or equipment also contributes to minimising household waste. Individuals can minimise their water usage, and walk or cycle to their destination rather than using their car to save fuel and cut down emissions.
Hazardous Waste Minimization
In a domestic situation, the potential for minimisation is often dictated by lifestyle. Some people may view it as wasteful to purchase new products solely to follow fashion trends when the older products are still usable. Adults working full-time have little free time, and so may have to purchase more convenient foods that require little preparation, or prefer disposable nappies if there is a baby in the family. The amount of waste an individual produces is a small portion of all waste produced by society, and personal waste reduction can only make a small impact on overall waste volumes.
Yet, influence on policy can be exerted in other areas. Increased consumer awareness of the impact and power of certain purchasing decisions allows industry and individuals to change the total resource consumption. Consumers can influence manufacturers and distributors by avoiding buying products that do not have eco-labelling , which is currently not mandatory, or choosing products that minimise the use of packaging.
Chemistry of Waste Minimization
In the UK , PullApart combines both environmental and consumer packaging surveys , in a curbside packaging recycling classification system to minimise waste. Where reuse schemes are available, consumers can be proactive and use them. Health-care establishments are massive producers of waste.